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~NOTICE~  Please proceed as if reading a SCROLL (our website is being renovated and links have yet to be re-established),  First up are the first few of an ongoing series of articles which will use a new theory of everything providing the only real, complete and non-mathematical perspective on the Universe's nature, origin, structure and mechanics.  Information on our club etc. can be found immediately following the last Explanatory Paper posted (presently #5).  We trust your visit will be a fruitful and pleasant one.~SF~

The Earthling Club presents a series of brief Explanatory Papers entitled...
                                              THE UNIVERSE
                                        THE WHOLE UNIVERSE
                               & NOTHING BUT THE UNIVERSE
Consistent with the ideas/concepts in the book: THEORY & WORKS  (The Nature, Origin, Structure & Mechanics of Everything) by Samuel Fodera.
Warning:  These Papers published and distributed in hard-copy; and the required legal-deposit copies have been lodged with the relevant authorities.

January,  2003
(Revised) Explanatory Paper # 00001

From Direction To  Gravitation

Brief Introduction To  Realised Direction Theory

<1>  'Scalar'  Direction
Direction as such is the a priori Source and Substance of the Universe, since undifferentiated direction is the one, sole, natural attribute that is absolutely independent of any and all other entities, concepts and  considerations.

<2>  'Vector'  Direction
Scalar Direction self-differentiates into infinitesimally thin, infinitely long, duality filaments of Directional Impetus (Energy) whose open lines of action intersect everywhere to generate the coincidence-matrix of omni-directional absolute points. These omnipolar points form the fabric of the primary (ground state) vacuum substrate. This substrate is the True Void or Eternal Singularity; and is perceived by us as infinite volume or Space. I therefore refer to it as the Void Singularity matrix (VSmatrix) Space context.

<3>  VSmatrix  (Space)  Volume
In effect, the absolute points-line fabric of the VSmatrix constitutes volumetricated ‘vector’ Direction (not to be confused with original undifferentiated ‘scalar’ Direction concept). Thus constituting a classical Spatial arena manifesting as a rigid and passive 3-D points-line energy matrix from which looped-quanta of Direction randomly Realise into a flexible relative-context Reality dynamics (from which they eventually DeRealise back to VSmatrix context). Therefore, the primary vacuum substrate we call Space embodies the Absolute Frame of Reference.

<4>  Volumetrication  Flaw
These Realisations occur because fundamental relativities are infinitesimally unsettled (evidence PI etc.). This inherent flaw in the VSmatrix/Space processes means that volumetrication  of direction is incomplete. Hence, flaw-related ‘remainder’ consequences will arise wherever the natural geometrical/mathematical operations in the 3-D Space substrate cannot execute to completion, and so fail to balance infinitesimally at all times and all places each and every intersection-point location for all the infinite totality of Direction lines-of-coincidence. In short, direction-volumetrication processes fail to close perfectly the omni-directional spheres (radial spread of direction lines-of-coincidence) effectively defining the fundamental geometrical/mathematical relativities among the totality of absolute points in the primary-vacuum Space substrate.

<5>  The  mRDloop  Quantum  Of  Reality
The ongoing consequence of this failure to close absolute-point ‘spheres’ in VSmatrix is an unceasing generation of looped (activated) leftover line-bits (segments/quantums) of ‘vector’ Direction (Impetus-Energy). This fault-related looping (Realisation) changes a VSmatrix Space point’s contextual (effectiveness) status: from absolute (reality ineffective) omnipolar-point Space ‘location’, to relative (reality effective) dipolar-loop Spacetime event. That is, from an infinitesimal segment of an open (passive) line in primary (ground state) vacuum Space context, to a minimal Realised Direction loop (mRDloop) quantum of closed (active) line in secondary (excited state) vacuum Spacetime context. In effect, mRDloops are the smallest physically-effective bits in RDmedium dynamics (next), as all VSmatrix/Space perturbations below mRDlooping threshold do not reach status-change ciriticality, and so will have no effect on Space point-location (meaning they will remain reality-ineffective until criticality is reached). Consequently, mRDloops represent the actual ultimately-indivisible ‘atoms’ of our physical RDmedium/Spacetime reality (since anything lesser remains reality-ineffective).

<6>  The  RDmedium  (Spacetime)  Dynamics
All mRDloop ‘atoms’ of active directional energy begin physical life as part of the ‘universal ocean’ of mRDloops generated unceasingly by/from the primary vacuum of VSmatrix/Space. For reasons soon to be made clear, this ‘ocean’ of mRDloops forms the Gravitational-Inertial (G-I) Fluid of secondary vacuum (or Spacetime). In a sense, G-I Fluid’s mRDloops are the active-energy time ‘atoms’ in Space(time) superstrate dynamics; hence secondary vacuum (Spacetime) effectively represents a relative Realised Direction medium  (RDmedium) context where G-I Fluid is the unstructured background (highest-entropy) phase (for structured foreground phases see items <9>,<10>). In other words, G-I Fluid is the ‘raw material’ of RDmedium/Spacetime reality dynamics; where Physical Reality effectively occurs (objectively/subjectively) in various-scale, unit-field mixed-distribution volumetrics of omnipolar(Space) points and dipolar(Spacetime) loops.  In effect, G-I Fluid is a globally-disordered, all-pervasive superfluid capable of supporting relative locally-ordered dynamical-unit (phenomenological) RDmedim/Spacetime subdivisions; the volumetrics per se being merely fluxing 3-D RDmedium(Spacetime) ‘images’ made up of currently-ON (realised) and currently-OFF (unrealised) ‘pixels’ in unbounded VSmatrix/Space. In conventional terms: A flawed, rigid primary-vacuum Space substrate (Absolute Frame of Reference context) unceasingly generates a flexible secondary-vacuum Spacetime superstrate which effectively forms a Relative Frames of Reference context.

<7>  Realisation  &  DeRealisation  Of  mRDloops
By their very nature and geometry, mRDloops possess charge, spin-twist and other reality-effective properties  that remain vulnerable to True Negation. That is, dipolar mRDloops can be DeRealised back into reality-ineffective omnipolar points during face-on encounters with other mRDloops having equal and opposite reality-effective properties. In such encounters, mRDloops effectively ‘open’ each other’s infinitesimal looplines, so merging back into a passive-context (open) line in VSmatrix. It’s important to understand that mRDloop DeRealisation (or True Negation) is NOT the same as Matter Annihilation (or Deconstruction): Annihilation occurs when Dipole Addition Structures (DASs) break up into lesser DASs (or even into constituent mRDloops); whereas DeRealisation happens only when perfectly opposite mRDloops meet face-on and negate altogether their reality-effectiveness.

<8>  The Grav-Inertial  Fluid  'Spacetime Ocean'
Because mRDloops are generated unceasingly by/from VSmatrix/Space, space itself is the primary/globalised source of mRDloops that make up the pristine G-I Fluid ‘raw material’ of RDmedium/Spacetime. However, there can also occur secondary/localised sources of recycled mRDloops. In certain situations (see item <12>), the mRDloop consituents of G-I Fluid that had evolved into Electro-Magnetic <E-M> Solid structures is annihilated all the way back down to its constituent mRDloops, thereby giving a G-I Fluid region of mostly ‘reclaimed’ mRDloops. Whether ‘pristine’ or ‘recycled’, mRDloops can delay DeRealisation by aggregating (evolving) into Dipole Addition Structures (DASs) in accordance with the loop dynamics Rules of Reality (discussed in my book THEORY & WORKS). These natural loop-interaction rules operate in our relative RDmedium/Spacetime context to produce geometric/arithmetic consequences in the form of localised flows and pressure differentials in the global G-I Fluid. In effect, local ‘topology’ in the global G-I Fluid ‘ocean’ is shaped by variously-scaled/distributed Sink sites induced by (E-M) structure (Matter) processes. These E-M (Matter) DASs are in effect ‘drainage sites’ for G-I Fluid, because matter’s convoluted flow-structure is responsible for increased localised G-I Fluid turbulence and re-orientations. This effectively catalyses mRDloop DeRealisation to rates much higher than in surrounding matter-free regions (where lesser random DeRealisation rates apply). Basically, the increased churning of G-I Fluid by E-M structures raises the mRDloop-collision rate, and hence increases the probability that opposing mDloops collide sooner rather than later. Simply, the higher DeRealisation rate at a sink site removes (truly negates) mRDloops from local Reality dynamics much more efficiently than would occur in surrounding sink-free regions, thereby lowering the local G-I Fluid pressure; and so inducing pressure gradients between E-M DAS sites and void regions. Naturally, such pressure gradients mean that G-I Fluid from relatively higher-pressure ‘void’ source regions will head toward the nearest relatively-lower-pressure ‘occupied’ sink region. Moreover, since matter is essentially  porous to G-I Fluid, any smaller DAS straying within the G-I Fluid inflow-sphere of a larger DAS’s sink site will tend to be ‘drag-pushed’ along by G-I Fluid streaming through that smaller DAS (on its way to the larger DAS’s more powerful sink effect).  And of course, the strength/reach of the smaller DAS’s inflow-sphere will determine if (and how strongly) that larger DAS itself is drag-pushed reciprocally towards the smaller DAS’s sink.

<9>  Electromagnetic  'Spacetime  Structures'
The structure of the Photon, Electron, Proton and Neutron (and of Attached and Free Range E-M and G-I ‘fields’) are covered more fully in Explanatory Paper #6.  Meanwhile, the purposes of the present paper require that I here (and in  the next item) briefly cover certain crucial aspects: For aggregations of mRDloops to evolve to any high degree from the ‘raw’ G-I Fluid, they must achieve integral-flow configurations that are self-reinforcing and not easily disrupted; and thereby producing the variety of DAS sink-matter particles/bodies that together form the locally-ordered foreground (E-M Solid (matter/structured) phases of overall RDmedium/Spacetime (as transiently impressed by Reality dynamics on the globally-disordered G-I Fluid background phase of RDmedium/Spacetime). And of course, the fewer disruption sites presented by integral-flowloops to incoming disruptors, the better are the chances for DASs to evolve ever-more complex and convoluted E-M core flowloops that can anchor ever-more expansive attached and/or peripheral loopflows. Also worth mentioning here are a couple of Reality-dynamics points which conventional theory fails to grasp (let alone explain): the inherent 2-Dimensional ATTITUDINAL CHARGE effects associated with naked (clean and simple) fast-travelling loops; and the Acquired 3-Dimensional CONFIGURATIONAL CHARGE effects associated with dressed loops (complex and convoluted slow-travelling loops having an integral-flow core structure capable of anchoring standing vortex loopstacks forming attached Electric and Magnetic ‘fields’ around themselves).

<10>  Electromagnetic  Field
Unlike free E-Mag fields (i.e., fluxing interference pattern of Photonic looptrains criss-crossing willy-nilly through matter-free space), locally attached Electric and Magnetic fields are fixed to sink-matter core structures.  Around the Electron, for example, the peripheral photonic looptrains are arranged in side-by-side standing vortex ‘loopstacks’ with lower ends ‘anchored’ by the Electron’s E-M structure core-flows. If one could see a non-spinning electron, one would be reminded of a Sea Urchin; the axial filaments of the electron’s standing spherical forest (attached field) of G-I/E-M vortices being the ‘spines’ pointing radially out from the ‘anchoring’ E-M structure core-flows. [About vortices in RDmedium/Spacetime: G-I & E-M loopstacks are topological soliton type structures that are either self-attached (independent toroidal-loop vortex stuck head-to-tail) or extraneously-attached (dependent linear vortex with one end anchored to a larger-scale vortex structure of either form). These ‘vortex-solitons’ are different from the ‘planar-phonons’ waves of G-I Fluid pressure waves that can propagate sound-like in RDmedium/Spacetime. In fact, RDmedium/Spacetime vortex-solitons are analogous to superfluid vortex filaments/topological solitons found to persist in superfluids/superconductors---which is not surprising, as RDmedium/Spacetime context is effectively superfluidic; and superconductive too, when underlying VSmatrix/Space context is taken into account.] Anyway, back to our Electron. Its coat of (vortex) loopstacks effectively represents a multi-tiered Bosonic flow of entrained-pair photonic-loops around the core structure, where it ‘expels’ magnetic-field looplines previously part of the photonic loops (analogous to how bosonic flows of entrained-pair electronic-loops ‘expel’ magnetic-field looplines in superconductors). The effect is basically one of configurational segregation; wherein an omnipolar attached electric ‘field’ whose various ‘loop levels’ orbit within the various ‘tubes’ of a dipolar attached magnetic ‘field’ shaped like a nested torus. The Electron ‘charge’ strength and ‘field’ configuration is of course determined by (1) the Electron’s sink-matter efficiency and strength (2) the standing vortex ‘packing density’ allowed by overall Electron geometry/topology and (3) how ‘high’ vortex-stacks of electric (actually photonic) loops can get before the topmost loops are centrifugally ‘spun-off’---so determining effective free-space ‘range’ for every electron spin-energy level (explained in more detail in Explan. Paper #6). Basically, then, the Electron outer structure looks like a ‘forest’ of tiny dipolar bar-magnets standing on their N-poles (i.e., S-poles pointing radially outward).  Obversely, the Positron ‘spines’ will of course stand on their S-poles (N-poles pointing outward).  So an electron and positron in effective proximity ‘lock on’ to each other’s outfacing S-poles/N-poles respectively; these tending to ‘dipole-stack’ with each other (S-N/S-N/S-N...)  in accordance with the ‘dipolar rules of reality’ mentioned earlier. This dipole-stacking is self-reinforcing to a high degree, so the ‘E-M attraction’ effect will bridge the empty space between them, and hold them together until the pair either mutually annihilate or are separated by a stronger force (and under certain conditions, electrons and positrons can entrain/stack/merge their core/peripheral flows to create neutral/charged E-M/G-I particles).

<11>  'Attractive'  Gravitation
As explained, the direct consequence of the G-I sink effect is mutual attraction, where each body’s G-I inflows try to drag-push the other body into their own sink. This direct (attractive) consequence between sink-bodies can thus be properly and correctly labelled ‘normal’ (as opposed to the ‘abnormal’ indirect consequences in ‘Black Shells’ (item 12) and ‘Void-Cells’ (item 13). Earth, for example, induces a SYMMETRIC ‘standing’ spherical pattern of G-I flows into its lower pressure sink site, so any smaller (weaker-sink) body on its surface is actually positioned non-symmetrically (off-centre with respect to the Earth’s symmetric spherical-inflow-pattern) and will naturally be asymmetrically drag-pushed ‘down’ towards the centre of the Earth by any G-I Fluid streaming into/through that smaller body on the Earth’s surface. Obviously, Earth’s sink is not the strongest. There are extreme bodies whose sink-induced pressure gradients accelerate the incoming  G-I Fluid so ferociously that, as it approaches the body’s surface, its absolute velocity (through absolute-context VSmatrix/Space) is enough to overwhelm even photonic waves propagating in that G-I Fluid at ‘merely’ Luminal velocity. In short, even oppositely-directed Light may be washed (drag-pushed) back ‘downstream’ into an extreme sink-body if the absolute velocity of the G-I Fluid (that is carrying those lightwaves) outstrips the ‘waving speed’ of Light in that RDmedium/Spacetime G-I Fluid (in which case a ‘black hole’ event horizon forms about that body).

<12>  'Repulsive'  Gravitation  (Single-Body)
The indirect ‘repulsive’ consequence of the Sink Effect arises in Single-Body ‘black hole’ situations. All cases involve a sink-structure of ‘abnormal’ geometry and distribution; wherein a central region of ‘reclaimed’ G-I Fluid is produced at the centre of the body to act against the ‘weight’ of the upper layers. [Some might term this indirect repulsive consequence  ‘anti-Gravity’, but it’s no such thing. Rather, it’s merely the previously-described ‘normal’ G-I Fluid ‘drag-push’ forces acting (in this case) within ‘abnormal’ sink configurations.] Naturally, the ‘reclaimed’ G-I Fluid tries to flow symmetrically-outwards, from the higher-pressure region at the centre to the lower-pressure regions of the upper layers of sink-matter. This is going on even as ‘normal’ external G-I Fluid continues to flow symmetrically ‘down’ on those upper layers (from outside). Thus an inner localised repulsive (antigravity) effect will act against the very thing that gives rise to it... Crushing pressures inside an extreme body will trigger matter-crunching processes that can annihilate Neutronic matter all the way down to its constituent mRDloops; thus creating a G-I Fluid ‘inner sea’ of reclaimed mRDloops (isolated from external G-I Fluid ‘ocean’ by still-intact sink-matter surrounding a central ‘crunching zone’). This surrounding sink-matter still creates a ‘spherical-annulus’ region of extreme low pressure whose outer ‘topology’ in RDmedium reflects that of the contiguous hollow sphere of sink-matter that is inducing it; which by now  forms an extreme ‘Black Hole’ sink-Shell body (or just Black Shell) having both exterior and interior surfaces into/through which abnormal (internal) and normal (external) G-I Fluid may flow: exterior flows responsible for direct ‘attractive’ (normal) Gravity consequence of the sink effect; interior flows responsible for indirect ‘repulsive’ (abnormal) anti-gravity consequence. But if inner localised ‘antigravity’ saves Black Shells from infinite collapse to mathematical singularities...how big can Black Shells grow? Well, a FAST-SPINNING Black shell can become humongous because they are particularly resistant to bursting, thanks to one of Nature’s little tricks: Polar Jets! Fortunately for spinning shells, they form a polar jet system that can relieve otherwise dangerous pressure surges in their inner G-I Fluid.  Such surges regularly occur in actively growing black shells as a result of the sudden increase in ‘internal crunching’ that usually accompanies ‘feeding frenzies’ and mergers; whereupon jets form automatically through ‘standing weakspots’ at poles kept thinned by centrifugal action. SLOWLY/NON-SPINNING shells, though, having the same thickness all over, lack such standing weakspots through which jets could quickly form in emergencies. For such shells: the longer the delay, the greater the pressure, the stronger the interior ‘antigravity’ effect, the greater the risk of an ‘antigravity’ excursion exploding the shell.

<13>  'Repulsive'  Gravitation  (Multi-Body)
But the indirect consequence of the sink effect not only produces a LOCALISED force that prevents mathematical singularities, it can also produce a COSMOLOGICAL force as well. Multi-Body ‘antigravity’ situations involve a matter-free ‘void’ filled with flaw-Realised (pristine as opposed to reclaimed) mRDloops pressurising a G-I Fluid region loosely surrounded by a discontiguous ‘shell’ of sink-structures. Such ‘Void-Cell’ Fluid-Sink geometries and distributions results in a globalised ‘antigravity’ repulsion effect that kicks in once a critical minimum expanse of matter-free space separates two or more sink structures (the effective distance depends on pre-existing RDmedium/Spacetime surroundings). This cosmological RDmedium/Spacetime ‘expansion’ phenomenon should be especially evident in astronomical-scale Void-Cell situations where Galaxy-clusters form loose-shell ‘walls’ around a matter-scarce observational void (more details in Expl. Paper #4). Random-average rates of DeRealisation in the matter-scarce ‘void’ cannot lower the G-I pressure anywhere near as effectively as sink-related DeRealisation at the ‘cell walls’: so G-I Fluid flows from high-pressure ‘void’ to low-pressure ‘walls’; drag-pushing along with it any stray galaxies, so ‘expanding’ them away from each other while ‘pressing’ them further into the closest ‘wall’.   Hence, if allowed to do so by its surroundings, even the smallest Void-Cell tends to grow to supra-astronomical scales; the growth of the initial void-cell be more certain and rapid if its own ‘spherical wall’ of galaxies is itself concentrically surrounded by even-more-massive walls of sink-matter that induce regions of even-lower G-I pressure further out. The initial void-cell’s void-pressurised G-I Fluid will then not only drag-push stray galaxies into its own walls, it will continue on and drag-push those walls themselves radially outward as it streams through them on its way to the even-lower-pressure region induced by the more massive sink-matter ‘walls’ further out. In the particular case of our ‘expanding’ observable universe, the ‘present’ rate of ‘overall’ expansion will be determined largely by the G-I Fluid pressure differentials existing between the ‘edge’ of the relevant Grav-Inertial dynamical unit involved---the effective RDmedium/Spacetime extent of the void-cell we call the ‘expanding’ universe---and the even-lower-pressure sink-regions further out (the upshot being that galaxies at the ‘edge’ should ‘expand’ outward ever more strongly as time goes by because those galaxies are getting closer to massive pre-existing ‘walls’ further out. But why is the Local Group of galaxies (Milky Way, Andromeda etc.) not  ‘expanding’ radially outwards like all the other galaxies further out? Because their G-I Fluid inflow-spheres ‘overlap’ to produce a local interstitial low-pressure region at their common centre; and since they are separated from distant massive-cluster ‘walls’ by more than the critical minimum expanses of ‘void’ space, a surrounding ‘spherical annulus’ of high-pressure will exist in the intervening ‘void’; which will send G-I Fluid streaming radially both ways: that is, while G-I Fluid from the farther sides of this spherical annulus of high pressure drag-pushes outwards as before, G-I Fluid from the nearer sides drag-pushes radially inwards; and into/through the local group, thus tending to ‘contract’ those galaxies as it streams towards their local common centre of low pressure (i.e.,  in ‘normal’ attractive gravitation fashion).

<14>  'Inertial'  Acceleration
Accelerations are Inertial where G-I Fluid drag-push forces are NON-SYMMETRICAL, that is, where G-I accelerations are due to lopsided flows and pressure-gradients (not part of symmetric Gravitational ‘field’ flow/pressure pattern).

<15>  'Gravitational' Acceleration
Accelerations are considered Gravitational where the G-I Fluid drag-push forces are part of a SYMMETRICAL  ‘field’ of a Grav-Inertial forces ‘pattern’.  A Gravitational pattern usually manifests what may be termed a ‘soft’ fluidic-forces ‘field’ (as opposed to the ‘hard’ solidic-forces in Electro-Magnetic ‘fields’ involving ‘rigid’ photonic-loop bridging structures).

END <Revised>Explanatory Paper #  00001          END <Revised>Explanatory Paper #  00001                         END <Revised>Explanatory Paper #  00001


 February,  2003
<Revised> Explanatory Paper #  00002

Orbital  Dynamics  In
A Grav-Inertial Ocean

Anomalous Orbital Velocities

<1>  Preamble
Among other things, <Revised> Expl. Paper #1 explained how mRDloops randomly Realise constantly from the underlying reality-ineffective Space (VSmatrix) context, so increasing the content and pressure of the ubiquitous and all-pervasive ‘ocean’ of mRDloops that forms the background Grav-Inertial Fluid phase of reality-effective Spacetime (RDmedium) context. It also explained how Electro-Magnetic matter structures are sink sites for G-I Fluid because matter processes catalyse DeRealisations of mRDloops back to reality-ineffective (VSmatrix) Space context, thus removing G-I Fluid (mRDloops) from reality dynamics sooner than would otherwise occur by random DeRealisation in the surrounding matter-free void. It then explained how Gravitation-Inertia are effects arising from the drag-push forces imparted to matter structure whenever G-I Fluid is caused to stream into/through same. Here in this second paper, we will see how G-I Fluid streaming into/through a system’s orbiting sink-matter may sculpt, and in turn be sculpted by, the geometry and distribution of that sink-matter.

<2>  The  Solar  System
The Solar System has roughly five Grav-Inertial dynamic regions. (1) Halo: spherical-annulus of sink-matter-poor spacetime (RDmedium), extending all the way in from the system’s interstellar Grav-Inertial Fluid inflow induction horizon to system outskirts; (2) Northern and (3) Southern Hemispheres: these in-system sink-matter-scarce regions extend from outskirts to Sun; (4) Planetary Disk: having relatively trivial amounts of stable-orbit sink-matter; and (5) Central Sink Structure (Sol): containing overwhelming bulk of system’s sink-matter. Now, Realised Direction Theory says that the solar system induces a low-pressure G-I Fluid ‘bubble’ whose ‘sink effect’ influence peters out at a spherical induction horizon in interstellar spacetime. From there, higher-pressure G-I Fluid accelerates radially in towards the solar system as a whole. Insignificant sink-matter in the Halo region means that streams of G-I Fluid (mRDloops) traversing this region are not depleted by in-sink DeRealisation; nor are they slowed by ‘drag-push’ interaction with any significant sink-matter. So by the time it accelerates all the way in to the system outskirts, this unattenuated G-I Fluid is flowing strongly. Hence, outskirts sink-matter will feel a relatively hefty drag-push (gravitational) acceleration at this stage of the standing G-I-inflow pattern; meaning that, even this far out from the combined sink effect of Sun and planets, only those sink-bodies (comets etc.) having relatively high orbital velocities can maintain stable orbits. From there in the Hemisphere-radials inflow-pattern is hardly troubled by the scarce sink-matter encountered between outskirts and central sink (the overwhelmingly dominant Sun); while the Disk-radials inflow-pattern is only slightly troubled, any particular G-I stream being only fleetingly affected by the occasional planet/moon moving along its lonely orbit. Overall, the solar system’s standing G-I inflows suffer only relatively trivial attenuation from its orbiting sink-matter. Essentially, local G-I Fluid has accelerated smoothly in from horizon to outskirts to overwhelmingly dominant central sink with little if any lasting effect from orbiting sink-matter. This simple, smoothly-accelerating inflow-pattern from interstellar void to central sink is typical of ‘clean’ orbital systems whose Grav-Inertial dynamics are not complicated by significant competition between the parent sink and its satellites. All this results in a simple drag-push (gravitational) accelerations profile that shows an inverse-square progression for the orbital velocity distribution from outskirts to Sun; that is...

Slow-->  Medium-->  Fast-->  Fastest
Hence the early Rotation Curve that led to the current sterile (mathematical/geometrical) ‘understandings’ of Gravitation.

<3>  The  Globular  Star-Cluster
A massive compact Globular Cluster has roughly three G-I dynamic (all concentric) regions: (1) Halo: sink-matter-poor spacetime region extending from intercluster G-I inflow-induction horizon to cluster outskirts; (2) Main Cloud of stars from cluster outskirts to (3) Nucleus Cloud of stars in chaotic region: between ‘bottom layer’ of main cloud and ‘effective surface’ of...(4) Central Sink (if any: at a certain stage in its evolution, a cluster may only be self-entangled, and so not have a single-body sink core; instead, there may only be an especially compact Core Cloud of stars acting as a multi-body sink core). Now, as usual, void-sourced G-I Fluid accelerates unattenuated all the way in from the induction horizon---here more distant  than for solar system---and into/through sink-bodies orbiting on the cluster outskirts. The (by then) fast/dense G-I Fluid imparts hefty drag-push (gravity) accelerations on outskirts stars there, so they must have relatively high orbital velocities to maintain stable orbit there. However (unlike what happens in the solar system), the very high all-round ‘packing’ density of sink-matter in the Main Cloud of stars means that, from outskirts in, mRDloop content of G-I streams is depleted and slowed severely by unavoidable encounters with significant sink-matter; meaning that G-I drag-push (gravity) accelerations will diminish precipitously as streams proceed inwards. The attenuation may be so great that by the time we get to the ‘bottom layer’ of the Main Cloud stars are practically dawdling in their orbits without risk of being spiralled in. From here on in to the central sink-body (if any), a chaotic Nucleus Cloud region will be much complicated by Electro-Magnetic energy flows (from stellar collisions in a Core Cloud; or from an ‘actively feeding’ central Black Shell sink-body if any. [Note: for much of their life, particularly massive and compact globular clusters  may just have one (or several) unusually gigantic stars of ‘merely’ Neutron-Star/White-Dwarf densities at their core because the drag-push (gravity) so far down in the cluster may not be strong enough to compress (collapse) even such ‘spent’ giants to Black Shell density.] Anyhow, assuming our cluster to have a central sink, its real-world drag-push (gravity) profile (from outskirts to central sink) would be something like...  Fast-->  Medium-->  Slow-->  Dead Slow  ...which is actually the REVERSE of the Solar System orbital velocities profile!

<4>  The  Spiral  Galaxy
A Spiral Galaxy has roughly eight G-I regions: (1) Halo from horizon to outskirts; (2) Northern and (3) Southern Hemispheres; (4) Outer-Orbital Rings (5) Middle-Orbital Rings and (6) Inner-Orbital Rings of sink-matter in the massive accretion disk; (7) a spherical Chaotic-Orbitals region between innermost disk rings and the ‘effective surface’ of...(8) Central Sink Structure: most probably a spinning Black Shell surrounded by captive sink-matter on which it is ‘feeding’. Now, the central sink structure in a settled spiral galaxy is not the dominant sink structure, as it is far outweighed by the rest of the galaxy ‘pancake’. As usual, G-I Fluid accelerates (unattenuated) from inflow-induction horizon to galactic outskirts, where, even out there, stars/clusters will still need to move pretty nippily to stay in stable orbits. From the outskirts in, G-I streams on Disk-radials will unavoidably plough into/through the massive amounts of sink-matter (stars) residing in the Outer-Orbital Rings of the extremely massive accretion disk. Consequently, and similar to what happens along all radials in our globular cluster above, these streams eventually deplete/slow so much that their drag-push (gravity) effects will ‘exhaust’. However! Spiral galaxy pancake geometry--as opposed to globular geometry of above star-cluster---means that exhausting disk-radial streams can be boosted and replenished by side-flows ‘sucked’ in from Hemisphere-radials by the decreasing G-I Fluid pressure in the exhausting streams. The accretion disk’s vast diameter and sink-matter content means previously unattenuated Hemisphere-radial streams will progressively swerve towards its more dominant sink effect: First, near-disk Hemisphere streams will swerve into the Outer-Orbital Rings at acute angles, and so will maintain high drag-push (gravity) accelerations along the disk there. Second, Hemisphere streams are ‘sucked in’ from progressively further away---but! these will have had more time to re-orient, and so will hit the Middle-Orbital Rings of the disk more squarely, and so their ‘drag-push’ (gravity) force tends as much to compress the disk as to accelerate its stars radially inwards. Hence stars in Middle-Orbital Rings will only require orbital velocities roughly similar to those of stars in Outer-Orbital Rings to resist falling in. Third, by the Inner-Orbital Rings stage, Hemisphere streams are swerving less and less due to the approaching central Black Shell sink-body competing more and more with Inner-Orbital Rings sinks for the G-I inflows; which will again hit the disk more and more  acutely; such that drag-push (gravity) from here in will get stronger, and stars will need to orbit faster the closer they are to the Chaotic region around the galactic nucleus. Hence the orbital velocity profile in the settled Spiral Galaxy’s accretion disk is (from outskirts to nucleus)... Fast-->  Fast-->  Increasingly Faster-->  Fastest ...which is different again from both the previous two cases; and also consistent with the most recent observations in spiral galaxies.

<5>  Conclusion
Since there are many orbital system scales and configurations, it is unwise to extrapolate Rotation Curves from ‘clean’ lightweight systems to ‘complex’ massive system!

END <Revised>Explanatory Paper #  00002          END <Revised>Explanatory Paper #  00002                         END <Revised>Explanatory Paper #  00002


March,  2003
(Revised) Explanatory Paper #  00003

Black  Shells  In  A
Grav-Inertial Ocean

Physics Inside Black Holes

<1>  Preamble
In <Revised>Expl. Paper #1 we saw, among other things, how the rigid primary vacuum (Space) substrate generates a flexible secondary vacuum (Spacetime) superstrate. We saw how the constant contextual shuffling of Direction quanta (mRDloops) back and forth between unreality and reality effectively drives a dynamical Grav-Inertial Fluid circuit whose source is Space and whose sinks are Matter structures evolving from that G-I Fluid. We also saw how these unceasingly generated mRDloop ‘atoms’ of reality dynamics are always pressurizing ‘void’ Spacetime (sink-matter-free) regions; and how pressure gradients between these sink-matter ‘occupied’ and sink-matter ‘void’ regions causes G-I Fluid to flow from the former to the latter. In particular, we identified this G-I Fluid dynamics circuit as the real mechanism underlying all observable physical phenomena, especially including Gravitation. We then saw how Gravitation-Inertia effects arise from drag-push forces imparted to matter structures whenever G-I Fluid is caused to stream into/through such structures. We saw how the direct consequence of thisG-I  drag-push is ‘normal’ (attractive) gravitation phenomena; and how that same drag-push, under certain conditions, indirectly results in ‘abnormal’ (repulsive) gravitation situations wherein sink-matter geometry and distribution determines whether the ‘antigravity’ effect will produce LOCALISED ‘Black Shell’ or COSMOLOGICAL ‘Void-Cell’ structures. This third paper concentrates on the G-I dynamics within and around ‘Black Shell’ structures (‘Void-Cell’ structures are covered in <Revised>Expl. Paper #4). Here we shall see how Gravity fights Gravity!...thus preventing infinite collapse of extreme sink-matter bodies (and thus avoiding illogical mathematical singularities).

<2>  'Attractive'  Gravitation  Outside
A Black Shell (see <Revised>Expl. Paper #1) creates such an extremely ‘steep’ pressure gradient between its outer surface and ambient RDmedium/Spacetime regions that the absolute speed (across VSmatrix/Space context) of the G-I Fluid inflow surpasses the Lightwave propagation velocity in that G-I Fluid, resulting in an observational event horizons (which must not be confused with the usual G-I inflow-induction horizon every sink-body induces further out in surrounding void regions). Once created, and for as long as the Black Shell exists, the observational event horizon remains at roughly the same distance from the surface regardless of how great a diameter the Black Shell achieves. This is because Black Shell thickness, and hence sink strength per unit surface area, is kept roughly to a ‘standard’ value by means of a feedback mechanism effectively linking shell thickness to the internal Neutron crunching rate; which increases/decreases in response to the weight of the ‘overburden’. This ‘weight’ increases as more matter accretes onto the shell; which shell is in turn brought back to the ‘standard’ thickness/weight by the resulting higher rate of inner-shell crunching caused by the added ‘thickness’ of material accreted onto the outer surface. This means that the event horizon ‘balloons out’ strictly in step with the diameter of the Black Shell itself, and so essentially always remains at the same effective distance from the shell  surface; and hence the same near-surface extreme pressure gradient is maintained at all times. This non-varying gradient aspect is another radical departure from the variable gradient scenarios of conventional black hole theories which say that as more and more matter falls into the black hole, the event horizon grows in step with the strength of its putative ‘mathematical singularity’, which grows ever stronger (in the absence of any self-limiting/feedback mechanism) and influences space ever further away so that the ‘conventional’ event horizon eventually extends out to regions so far from the putative ‘singularity’ that the pressure gradient across the event horizon would be almost imperceptible.  This does not happen with Black Shell event horizons because the (gravitational) gradient strength begins ‘tracking’ a roughly ‘standard’ value from the moment the neutron crunching processes are ‘switched on’ by the internal pressures right at the earliest stages of a shell’s life (for example, right from the moment an ‘ordinary’ Neutron Star has accreted sufficient material and become massive enough to form a ‘black’ neutron-crunching object of a certain initial ‘minimum’ shell thickness and pressure gradient. In any event, the induced flow/pressure gradient between external Spacetime and ‘black’ hollow-shell sink structure is so extreme that, as incoming G-I Fluid crosses the event horizon to approach the shell surface proper, its absolute streaming speed across VSmatrix (Space) is Super-Luminal; so any Photon ‘waving upstream’ at ‘merely’ Luminal velocity will inevitably be ‘carried  downstream’ onto the surface of the resulting Black Shell by the G-I stream in which that photon is propagating. This demonstrates the existence of RDmedium/Spacetime as a true, classically-effective, physically-real medium, as follows: Conventional black hole theories state that at the event horizon a lightwave propagating radially out will be ‘frozen’ at that position because it is being gravitationallt accelerated ‘downwards’ exactly as fast as it is propagating ‘upwards’. But for a photon to exist requires constantly alternating Electric/Magnetic fields.  Even in conventional physics, a free yet static photon is impossible; so there must exist some light-propagating medium (i.e., RDmedium/Spacetime) that can relatively do the ‘moving’ while the photon propagates ‘upstream’ and yet ‘appear’ absolutely stationary in VSmatrix/Space context. So it is not unthinkable that an overwhelming inflow of G-I Fluid (unstructured RDmedium/Spacetime) is responsible for extreme levels of ‘normal’ (attractive) Gravity phenomena that give rise to observational ‘black holes’ centred on extreme (Black Shell) sink-bodies.

<3>  'Repulsive'  Gravitation Inside
At the core of Neutron Stars just ‘heavy’ enough (but not yet properly ‘hollow’), Neutron-crunching processes start to annihilate (deconstruct) sink-matter all the way down to ‘reclaimed’ mRDloops that in effect form an INTERIOR region of G-I Fluid at high pressure. From this point on, mRDloop (degeneracy?) pressure prevents further collapse of the ‘overburden’; which subsequently remains at the starting ‘standard’ thickness (as explained earlier).  The INTERNAL high-pressure G-I Fluid naturally flows into the inner surface of the overburden (now essentially a hollow, spherical, ‘contiguous-shell’ of sink-matter), so drag-pushing the innermost layers of the ‘shell’ upwards against the weight of the upper layers. Hence, even as the extreme drag-push of the ambient EXTERIOR G-I Fluid continues to accelerate the upper layers of sink-matter downwards in the familiar ‘normal’ attractive-gravity fashion, an equally-extreme drag-push from the newly-created INTERIOR G-I Fluid acts to accelerate lower layers of sink-matter upwards in ‘abnormal’ repulsive-gravity effect. Thus, Gravity fights Gravity to prevent extreme sink-bodies infinitely collapsing to the self-evidently illogical (and now redundant) ‘mathematical singularities’ of conventional theories. In reality, just below the black ‘cloak’ of the event horizon is merely an extremely dense, hollow sphere of sink-matter enclosing a self-generated ‘inner sea’ of G-I Fluid derived from crunched Neutronic Matter---but in any case still part of the same Universe as all other sink-matter of whatever geometry/distribution. What that black ‘cloak’ does not conceal is some esoteric mathematical artifact that has ‘gone’ into some ‘higher dimension’ or ‘other universe’.

<4>  Spinners  Are  Winners
Contrary to the conventional saying that “nothing can escape a black hole”, internal G-I Fluid can ‘escape’ from a Black Shell and its enveloping event horizon owing to yet another of Nature’s unexpected physical tricks:  The same centrifugal force that causes a spinning Black Shell to bulge (thicken) at the equator, also causes the shell to stretch (thin down) at the spin-poles. This gives standing weak spots through which potentially catastrophic G-I Fluid pressure surges can be relieved as polar jets. In fact, given sufficient time and ‘food’, FAST SPINNING black shells can grow to Supra-Astronomical structures having trillions of times the sink-matter content within our local ‘observable universe’ volume.

<5>  Non-Spinners  Go  Bust
NON-SPINNING Black Shells can sporadically  ‘puff out’ minor excesses of G-I Fluid during gentle ‘feeding’ or constructive collisions with smaller shells etc. Their inevitable explosion can thus be deferred long enough to allow an occassional very lucky slow-/non-spinning Shell to attain still-impressive Astronomical sizes containing millions of times the sink-matter content within our local ‘observable universe’ volume. But they are living on borrowed time until a major excess of G-I Fluid occurs which ad hoc/inadequate jets cannot ‘relieve’ quickly enough.

<6>  Conclusion
Perhaps a ‘recent’ explosion of a lower-middle-weight Black Shell is responsible for the ‘local’ somewhat-Big Bang currently being contemplated by human observers as they fly out with and evolve within its 'local' aftermath.

END <Revised>Explanatory Paper #  00003          END <Revised>Explanatory Paper #  00003                         END <Revised>Explanatory Paper #  00003


April,  2003
(Revised) Explanatory Paper #  00004

Void-Cell Structure In
A Grav-Inertial Ocean

Cellular  Structure At All Scales

<1>  Preamble
Previous Expl. Papers stressed that the primary-vacuum substrate (Space) is the globalised source of a universal ‘ocean’ of mRDloops forming the G-I  Fluid phase of the Realised component of a secondary-vacuum superstrate (Spacetime) reality dynamics; and that sink-matter sink sites for this G-I Fluid cause the latter to flow from sink-matter-void regions to sink-matter-occupied regions, thereby directly producing not only a ‘normal’ attractive (gravitation) force, but also indirectly producing both a localised repulsive force and a cosmological repulsive force. In <Revised>Expl. Papers #1 & #3 especially, we saw how the latter indirect or ‘abnormal’ consequences of the same ‘normal’ G-I drag-push (gravitation) forces can produce a localised ‘antigravity’ effect that can prevent infinite collapse of a single-body sink structure (Black Shell). Here in this paper we now specifically treat the more common multi-body ‘antigravity’ situation that leads to the generally observed tendency towards what conventional theorists call ‘universal expansion’.

<2>  The  Void-Cell  Of  A  Somewhat-Big  Bang
If the localised explosion of a ‘somewhat-big’ Black Shell (see Expl. Paper #3) is at least partly responsible for the state of our observable-universe’s Spacetime dynamics, the spacetime region at the site of that explosion would have been ‘emptied’ of gross sink-matter concentrations. That is, the site of the Black Shell burst would initially have been left with only stray clouds of disintegrating matter and the ‘stagnant’ dregs of formerly interior G-I Fluid, the bulk of which would long since have streamed radially out to surrounding Spacetime regions and ‘drag-pushed’ along with it most of the burst Black Shell’s Neutronic matter (in the form of a discontiguous ‘expanding’ loose sphere of variously massive/dense shell fragments). In the ensuing ‘expanding mess’ [(1) massive chunks of the original Black Shell, (2) vast turbulent clouds of only partially annihilated Neutronic matter, (3) outstreaming (the formerly ‘interior’) G-I Fluid, and of course (4) any pre-existing matter in the Spacetime regions previously surrounding the original (now exploding) shell], some of the original-shell chunks will be variously massive/dense enough to form much smaller Black Shells in their own right. These ‘daughter’ ‘Black Shells would thus be able to ‘seed’ galaxies much sooner than would otherwise happen in the relatively ‘sterile’ Sargasso-Sea-like ‘void’ region of Spacetime left behind at the ‘site’ of the somewhat-big bang (hypernova?) of the original ‘somewhat-big’ Black Shell. The expanding ‘front’ of this loose sphere of shell-matter, plus any matter evolving all the while from the streaming G-I Fluid’s mRDloop constituents) would long ago have gone beyond our visual horizons and probably already hit the visually-inaccessible far-off ‘Cell Wall’ of hypermassive galaxy-clusters that by now surrounds the humongous but relatively matter-scarce Spacetime ‘void’ created by the ‘recent’ somewhat-big Black Shellburst, whose aftermath is still playing out in our little patch of that humongous ‘void-cell’ (that lesser initially relatively matter-‘void’ region of Spacetime dynamics that we call our ‘observable universe’ volume). But what about the central ‘sterile’ Spacetime region ‘cleaned out’ by the catastrophic ‘excursion’ of the original Black Shell’s interior G-I Fluid? Well, because of the absence of sink-matter in that ‘sterile’ void Spacetime region, mRDloops unceasingly pumped into that void Spacetime superstrate volume from the underlying Space substrate can only exit Spacetime dynamics through random DeRealisation. So G-I Fluid pressure builds and builds until the pressure gradient between that ‘void’ and the ‘radially receding’ sink-matter (exploded shell etc.) causes this ‘pristine’ G-I Fluid to also flow radially outward to the receding ‘loose shell’ of low-pressure that is ‘tracking’ matter-catalysed mRDloop DeRealisations induced by the Shell fragments etc.; thus further ‘extending’ the initial void site by drag-pushing outwards any matter encountered along the G-I Fluid streamline radials.

<3>  Micro  Scale  Void-Cells  From  Scratch
Meanwhile, in such vast void regions of Spacetime, there is plenty of time during this gentle outflow (from higher-pressure ‘centre’ to lower-pressure ‘receding’ sink-matter ‘cell wall’) for G-I Fluid constituents to aggregate and ‘evolve’ new sink-matter structure, slowly progressing through diffuse ‘gas’ of sub-Photonic/Photonic, then Electronic and then Nucleonic etc. sink-particles. Even as it is borne along by the still-radially ‘expanding’ G-I Fluid, this diffuse cloud gets ever-thicker, and eventually some random perturbations will cause some adjacent atoms, molecules etc. to become separated by the relevant minimum critical ‘void’ distance for a little longer than the average duration. This random new arrangement forms a ‘Micro’ Void-Cell that mimics the ‘Macro’ Void-Cell created by the original Black Shellburst. At this point, even such micro ‘voids’ are immediately ‘pressurized’ by pristine (void-sourced) mRDloops; thus creating and expanding ‘Micro’ Void-Cell structures ‘from scratch’ all throughout the ‘fog’ of elementary/molecular sink-matter particles evolving in the larger ‘Macro’ Void-Cell created by the original Black Shell explosion. Anyhow, the surrounding atoms/molecules of sink-matter (and their pressure-lowering sink-effects) will continue to be ‘drag-pushed’ apart more and more as the ‘void’ grows. This is a self-reinforcing process, since beyond the initial ‘micro’ void-cell there will exist/evolve ever-vaster amounts of atomic, molecular etc. sink-matter whose even-lower-pressure regions accelerates the radial outflow, and so  expand the initial ‘micro’ void-cell ‘walls’ until they meet other micro-void-cell walls coming the other way; at which point the earliest form of evolutionary competition ensues: larger voids generate more mRDloops and so will grow larger/stronger void-cells with higher-pressure  G-I Fluid that drag-pushes their own walls into the ‘walls’ of smaller/weaker adjacent micro-void-cells, ‘collapsing’ them. Such Void-Cell ‘soap-bubble’ dynamics produces denser ‘clumps’ of sink-matter wherever three or more void-cells ‘meet’; and so, as the process continues, ever-larger-scale void-cell structures with ever thicker sink-matter ‘walls’ produce ever denser ‘clumps’ at void-cell ‘junctions’. And surprisingly soon (epochally speaking), stellar-mass quantities of sink-matter will be ‘clustering’ at ever-larger void-cell ‘junctions’. By this scale-stage, cell-void-sourced G-I Fluid is streaming strongly into a ‘sink-matter-cluster’ at such a junction from virtually all sides (that is, from the (now astronomical scale) void regions of each of the ‘colliding’ Void-Cells responsible for forming that junction’s stellar-quantity sink-matter cluster), whereupon, the same cosmological G-I drag-push forces ‘expanding’ the Void-Cells now tend to ‘collapse’ (compress) sink-matter ‘clusters’ until thermo-nuclear ignition occurs and the compression is halted by the heat energy/pressure of nuclear fusion inside the new star. So, not only can ‘Micro’ Void-Cells grow from scratch to reach astronomical-scales, but new ‘pristine’ Stars can evolve ‘from scratch’ too; and  can do so in the absence of any pre-existing structure or ‘seeding’ mechanisms.

<4>  Supercluster  Scale  Void-Cells
The ‘average’ astronomical void-cells in our observable volume are thus probably due to ‘ordinary’ Novae events (star births) or Supernovae (star bursts).  Some may also be due to catastrophic internal G-I Fluid ‘excursions’ suffered by small-scale, non-spinning, Black Shells that couldn’t cope with a too-sudden increase in ‘Neutron-crunching’ (see Expl. Paper #3). A relatively gigantic void-cell like the BOOTES structure, for example, is most likely the result of an exploded supermassive Black Shell that contained galaxy-cluster quantities of matter. Not only would such an explosion sweep out a vast ‘void’, it would also significantly contribute to and compress the ‘walls’ of galaxies at any ‘junction’ with other lesser void-cell walls, and so produce junction ‘superclusters’ of sink-matter aggregations.

<5>  Astronomical  Scale  ‘Antigravity’
But no matter what size a void is when first swept out, the self-reinforcing ‘growth’ processes discussed earlier soon take over. And so, given the right surroundings, the bigger it grows the faster it grows (as earlier explained), because the local ‘head’ of G-I fluid pressure builds more effectively the bigger the expanse of ‘sinkless’ space there is. This is in fact the cosmological ‘antigravity’ phenomena producing the observed ‘universal’ recession.

<6>  Conclusion
Recent reports indicate that this ‘universal’ recession is accelerating. It can now be understood that the ‘front’ of such an expanding ‘loose sphere’ of black shell matter is ‘falling’ towards much-more-massive pre-existing sink-matter distributions that originally surrounded a ‘recently’ exploded Hypermassive Black Shell responsible for the relatively matter-scarce void ‘local’ patch of the universal volume; and that lower-pressure regions associated with those pre-existing sink-surrounds must cause the G-I fluid (and hence any galaxies etc. drag-pushed by that G-I Fluid) to accelerate and recede ever faster until they hit the ‘far wall’ of pre-existing sink-matter to which that G-I Fluid is ‘draining’. Hence the observed accelerating ‘expansion’.

END <Revised>Explanatory Paper #  00004          END <Revised>Explanatory Paper #  00004                    END <Revised>Explanatory Paper #00004


April,  2004
Explanatory Paper #  00005


Answering The Most Pressing
Unanswered   Questions   In
Physical  Cosmology  Today

<1>  Preamble
You have just finished devouring the latest professional papers in physical cosmology. You have noted the salient points. You have taken the time to digest the arguments and explanations. All great stuff. All very worthy. All very imaginative. All well and good. But why is it that all those learned efforts still leave you in the dark as to the true nature and extent of The Universe? And why, despite the vast professional intellectual and financial resources already applied to the many heroic scientific endeavours past and present, do you murmur to yourself:

Yes, but...what exactly IS the Source and Substance of Everything?...what exactly IS the True Void?...and what exactly IS the ‘stuff’ of so-called Quantum Vacuum?

Even an amateur or outsider can see that theories aspiring to be complete must first and foremost answer the above questions, which I have always thought of as “The first three questions” (hence the title of today’s paper). So why is it these questions remain unanswered by the professionals? The main reason is that professional theories have three logical ‘black holes’ built into them as a result of the plausibility gap in their treatments of these three questions. To their credit, though, professionals do admit that all their theories are incomplete. They now realise that all their theories have been doomed to incompleteness. Not just because they don’t answer those questions, but because their arguments are based solely on relative ‘facts’, and so inevitably hit a relative-fact ‘brick wall’ built from the respective arbitrary assumptions (usually cemented together by convenient boundary conditions). So, whether the arguments fall into a logical ‘black hole’ or hit the relative-fact ‘brick wall’, the result is the same: we are left with an uncomfortable feeling that professional theories start and go ‘absolutely’ nowhere. In fact, to many outsiders and amateurs, the professional debate is looking increasingly like some arcane academic guessing game involving relative-fact speculation and academic argument for argument’s sake. It is clear that professional physical cosmology is at an impasse. Who hasn’t come across professional quotes to the effect that their theories are “almost complete”, or “only needs one more piece of the puzzle”, and so on. When pressed, however, they will cheerfully and unashamedly admit that the piece they are missing is an absolutely fundamental one, unlike each and every piece of their theory as it stands. Now, just because the professionals can’t answer “the first three questions”, or find an absolutely fundamental piece of the puzzle, it doesn’t mean no amateur or rank outsider can either. For it wouldn’t be the first time that an outsider/amateur found some crucial piece the professionals consistently missed because prior training or orthodoxy ‘blinkered’ them to it. So let’s give it a shot here and now! Let’s clear our minds and try to outline, as briefly as we can, an objective train of thought aimed at answering the first three questions and finding a fundamental piece that we’ve all been missing; and perhaps we’ll finally do away with the questionable modern catch cry of “Everything is Relative!”  Let’s start our train of thought by confronting head-on the ‘biggest’ of “the first three questions”, thus...

<2>  Question 1...

What exactly IS the Source and Substance of Everything?

This question challenges us to find at least one absolute concept from which are derived all the relative concepts on which all theories till now have exclusively depended.

<3>  Answer to Q.1...

<4>  The 'Prime Scalar' Concept
By definition, any prime ‘thing’ must exist in a state that precedes all possible further natural differentiations and subjective derivations (i.e., our putative original physical entity must have a form that can simultaneously be least and most divisible!). Conventionally, a ‘scalar’ is the least differentiated  entity used in an equation. In keeping with this convention we shall label the ultimate physical thing we seek a ‘scalar’ concept. In fact, one can think of this thing as the prime SCALAR dimension existing absolutely prior to and independent of all other concepts and considerations. In short, this prime scalar dimension must be the only one we can identify as the absolute ‘progenitor’ of all the relative/derived things like time, distance, frequency, density, mass, orientation, volume and so on) that we currently base our incomplete models on. Moreover, and again by definition, the most fundamental aspects and ultimate form of the prime scalar dimension must be unbounded in every sense. And consequently, it must also inherently possess and embody all possible natural-logic operations (mathematics) as well as all possible natural-physics relativities (geometrics). It must certainly be at least capable of manifesting all those natural-mathematic and natural-geometric operations and relativities required to produce all that which we blithely call ‘Everything’. So, there you have the bones of it. Now, can you think of anything that could possibly fit this bill? Take your time. Look around. Ask yourself: What logical/physical scalar concept do I ‘perceive’ that might qualify as sole, natural, prime, absolute, unbounded, all encompassing and truly independent scalar dimension?

<5>  The 'Scalar Direction' Concept
The term omniDirectional is a useful and common one in standard physics. This term in effect describes the concept of ‘all possible directions to and from any chosen point’. In using this concept we have all this time effectively (although, up to now, quite unconsciously) recognized the possibility of there being a more ‘primitive’ form of the Direction concept: undifferentiated PRIME DIRECTION concept; or Direction Dimension as such. In other words, the fundamental ‘prime direction dimension’ whose form embodies all the radial directional-duality-coincidence-lines associated with each and every absolute point (in the putative fabric of some absolute frame of reference).

<6>  Interim Conclusion
We seem to have identified the source and substance of everything: PRIME SCALAR DIRECTION DIMENSION. It might take a while for us to get accustomed to speak of Scalar Direction Dimension as such. But since this novel concept appears to be intellectually liberating as well as efficacious in providing some original insights regarding the fundamental nature of everything, physicists should soon be using this absolute SCALAR DIRECTION form of direction dimension as deftly as they now use the familiar relative VECTOR DIRECTION form.

<7>  Question 2...

What exactly IS the True Void?

The phrase “The Void” is often used by cosmologists to imply the fundamental underlying ‘arena’ in and of which the cosmos of their theories plays out. However, the concept of a True Void has, until now, been a vague one---mainly because until now no one could consistently say just ‘what’ it is or ‘where’ it is in their scheme of things. This, then, is the next challenge for our train of thought: To identify the absolute frame of reference. In other words we must now try to extend the train of thought that led to DIRECTION per se as ultimate source and substance of everything. To be consistent, we will attempt to answer this next logical question by trying to identify and explain the immediate consequences of our answer to the previous question. So let’s see if we can come up with something that might help the professional physicist-cosmologist grasp the ‘absolute’ nature, origin and extent of the underlying ‘arena’ we perceive as Volumetric Space.

<8>  Answer to Q.2...

<9>  The 'Vector Direction' Concept
An unterminated line of direction is the most fundamental of all possible natural geometric relativities inherently embodied by the unbounded direction-in-the-bulk prime scalar dimension source and substance of everything. You may disagree, and say that a ‘point’ (and not a ‘line’) is the most fundamental natural geometric relativity! But remember, our train of thought has not yet arrived at any concept that could be thought of as a point, so to talk of a ‘point’ at this stage is premature.

Aside: If our train of thought is on the right track, and direction line concept does come before the point concept, then the conventional definition of a line---as a contiguous connection of two or more points pre-existing independently of the line now connecting them---would be brought into question. So let’s hope that our train of thought goes on to confirm this newfound ‘primacy’ of line concept over point concept.  And if it is confirmed, all you serious mathematicians out there will have some new and exciting possibilities to explore!

Anyhow, Direction naturally self-differentiates into infinitessimally thin, infinitely long, lines. These lines manifest as filaments of direction duality embodying all natural properties inherent in two-way orientational tendencies of Direction Dimension in subdivided VECTOR form. This fundamental tendency of orientational duality means that such a VECTOR direction dimension filament  can manifest EITHER of TWO main orientational impetus (or Energy) possibilities: that is, its impetus energy of orientational tendency can act along a filament in either one vector direction or its diametric opposite, but not both. Now at last, we will come to the ‘point’ as it were: Such energy lines intersect so as to generate an unbounded matrix of vector direction dimension line COINCIDENCE POINTS. The ‘fabric’ of absolute points so generated is in effect an ABSOLUTE FRAME OF REFERENCE fabric. But more important than that, even,  is the fact that after the ‘prime’ concept of ‘Scalar Direction’ as such, this is the earliest ‘logical stage’ at which ‘point location’ concept comes into the picture. So now we see that ‘points’ are created by ‘lines’ and not the other way round. That is, it requires the intersection of pre-existing lines to produce absolute points. So when one draws a line between two separate points, one is NOT really producing an actual filament of direction dimension because all the ‘points’ that ‘make up that line’ do NOT really ‘exist’ as such on that line, they ‘exist’ only in an underlying sense, in the absolute frame of reference ‘points-of-coincidence fabric’ generated by innumerable omnidirection energy  filament intersections.

<10>  The 'Volumetrication' Concept
In the answer to Q.1 we used the term omnidirectional to help grasp the ‘scalar’ or ‘direction-in-the-bulk’ concept. Here it helps us grasp the infinite centres-of-coincidence ‘fabric’ totality of an absolute frame of reference context. Imagine coincidence point ‘locations’ being constantly re-generated, thus giving an infinite INSTANTANEOUS fabric which from moment to moment manifests the totality of all ‘current’ omnidirectional centres-of-coincidence’. Each such centre can be seen as an intersection-location in the absolute frame of reference ‘fabric’ where all of the INCOMING RADIAL energy filaments are counterbalanced by OUTGOING RADIAL energy filaments. That is, each such point’s INFINITE SPHERICAL SPREAD of incoming and outgoing energy (impetus potential) lines are for the moment exactly balanced in all orientations from that intersection location. In conventional physical terms such an omnidirectionally balanced point of ‘force’ would be considered ineffective or neutral, and probably termed a ‘balanced omnidirectional point of energy potential’. An OMNIPOLE in other words. So OMNIDIRECTION concept has led to OMNIPOLE concept.

Aside:  You’ll note that our train of thought has gone from bulk scalar OMNI-DIRECTION concept...to linear vector DUALITY-DIRECTION concept...straight to OMNIPOLE POTENTIAL concept, and we haven’t struck concepts for MONOPOLE POTENTIAL or DIPOLE POTENTIAL. This leads one to suspect that (as was the case  for conventional assumptions about ‘points’ and ‘lines’)  the conventional  assumptions about ‘monopoles’ coming logically before ‘omnipoles’ are also open to question.  Oh my!... aren’t you mathematicians just loving this!

Anyway, we now see that the absolute frame of reference context is actually the instantaneous totality of all such balanced, physically neutral (or ‘ineffective’) omnipolar points. More importantly, if the ineffective fabric of such a context is ‘unfelt’ by an effective sentient being arising in that context, then that being might behave as if that absolute context was ‘not there’, and so ‘perceive’ it only as an innate sense of always being in a more fundamental background ‘arena’ that is effectively separate from the foreground physically effective dynamics of which it is a part. In conventional physical terms, the ‘point-fabric’ just described is essentially an ‘omnidirectional weaving’ of energy lines resulting in the VOLUMETRICATION of vector direction energy lines to give the absolute frame of reference context we perceive as SPACE.

Aside: This is the first time that our train of thought has identified anything that we humans more or less can relate to in conventional terms. In standard physics, this volumetricated energy point-matrix fabric’  would be the ‘stuff’ of some GROUND STATE  or ‘primary’ VACUUM. But more importantly, the ineffective 3-D volumetric it manifests as is the first thing our train of thought has come to that could in any way be called an ‘underlying arena’ or a TRUE VOID. So we have arrived at the concept of that physically imperceptible ‘true void’ SPACE of which professional theories invariably speak but never define in any consistent, objective manner.

<11>  Interim Conclusion
We identified TRUE VOID as an unbounded absolute-point totality generated by the natural process of energy-line volumetrication. Such ‘true void’ behaves as the original ineffective background-energy frame wherein physically effective foreground-energy ‘things’ arise and subside as a result of the natural intercontextual dynamics between absolute (mathematical relativities) frame and relative (geometrical-relativities) frame. But an intercontextual dynamics shouldn’t exist at all in a contiguous ‘fixed matrix’ SPACE arena forever in perfect balance. And so we come to...

<12>  Question  3...

What exactly IS the ‘stuff’ of so-called Quantum Vacuum?

OK. We’ve seen that the TRUE VOID is a vector-direction volumetrication process where direction-energy lines intersect to give the physically ineffective coincidence-point matrix of an absolute frame of reference ‘arena’. Since ineffective-points are the contiguous absolute ‘stuff’ of ground-state PRIMARY vacuum’s fixed matrix TRUE void, then we still need a discontiguos relative ‘stuff’ that makes possible the manifestation of some excited-state SECONDARY vacuum fluid medium, the physically effective ‘foreground’ distribution of which within background infinite SPACE volumetric may be termed the FALSE void. The trick now is to get from an ineffective absolute frame of reference to an effective relative frame of reference. That would be logically impossible if absolute SPACE points were always in a perfectly balanced state. But, since we obviously exist as part of some intercontextual dynamics, then SPACE points must NOT always be ‘balanced’...

<13>  Answer to Q.3...

<14> The 'Volumetrication Flaw' Concept
As we have come to suspect, the natural Mathematical operations and relativities are absolute and perfect (Man’s system of mathematical operations and relativities being merely an imperfect way of ‘parsing’ unbounded SPACE matrix into subjective, artificially bounded sub-divisions which we can mentally manipulate with some chance of not blowing a gasket). But the same is obviously NOT true for the natural Geometrical operations and relativities, as demonstrated by the simplest and most straightforward  ‘unsettled’ geometric ‘relativity’ known as “PI”. This one ‘imperfection’ in SPACE’s Natural Geometrical behaviour is enough to give rise to that which we seek: discrete ‘bits’ of physically effective energy forming within and distributed throughout SPACE’s contiguous fixed matrix; thus making possible the manifestation of a ‘false’ void or ‘secondary’ vacuum whose discontiguos ‘fluid medium’ would represent the combined instantaneous totality of all ‘currently effective’ and ‘currently ineffective’ points of SPACE. Now, as to the nature of such effectively-discrete ‘bits’...

<14>  The 'Infinitessimal Of Effectiveness' Concept
The infinitessimal resultant leftover bit known as “PI” is in fact the most demonstrable and human-comprehendable embodiment of the inherent flaw in the otherwise perfect volumetrication process described earlier. Because of this fundamental flaw in the natural geometric relativities of SPACE, the ongoing natural geometric operations will randomly encounter situations involving ‘unsettled’ geometric inter-relationships among the infinite number of absolute coincidence-points, also described earlier. This means that the direction-volumetrication process may not always execute to completion, that is ‘close the circle’, without some ‘leftover’ radial of direction being ‘excluded’ from the circle’s circumference; thereby randomly failing to balance infinitesimally the CIRCULAR spread of incoming and outgoing energy lines associated  with an intersection-point in primary vacuum SPACE matrix. The ongoing consequence of this ‘balancing act’ is unceasing generation of infinitessimal quantums of leftover ‘bits’ of energy (minimal energy loops---see book). This flaw-related looping transiently affects the relevant location’s ‘current’ contextual status: from absolute, reality-ineffective omnipole to relative, reality-effective dipole. That is, from being an infinitesimal segment of an open (passive) line in primary vacuum Space context, to being a minimal quantum of closed (active) loopline that---due to its infinitessimal impetus of direction at the moment of ‘looping’---has a PREFERRED ORIENTATION in secondary vacuum (QUANTUM VACUUM) context.

Aside:  At no stage has our train of thought come to a ‘time’ concept as such, hence the need to be wary of applying a label such as “SpaceTime” to the omnipole/dipole ‘fluid’  medium making up the relative frame of reference. The only thing we can say is that we have identified the ‘atom’ of fundamental discreteness: an infinitessimal ‘quantum’ of effectiveness in the form of a minimal loop of energy. The other thing we could say is that, because of this discreteness, all change in the ‘fluid’ medium of secondary vacuum---that is, all addition, subtraction, transference and re-arrangement of its minimal dipoles---must occur in discrete ‘effectiveness steps’. However, since the inherent fundamental properties of these discrete ‘bits’ will affect the rate of such change at the minimal ‘bit’ level, then it could be said that a UNIVERSAL RATE OF CHANGE exists as a predetermined constant (at least at this minimal level of the relative frame of reference).  And since change at that fundamental level involves myriad and simultaneous moments and orientations, it is unhelpful to speak of it being ‘reversible’ as such, because the rate of change in a particular event remains a constant, and the cumulative duration for that change merely  involves the serial summation of all the relevant discrete minimal ‘bit steps’ taken to achieve that change.  So in fact, “TIME” as such is merely an ‘accounting’ convenience, and so has nothing to do with any ‘real’ physical entity. Perhaps we would do well to use a label other than ‘spacetime’ for the ‘stuff’ of the secondary vacuum.

<15>  Conclusion
So the effective-foreground ‘medium’ of the QUANTUM VACUUM is merely instantaneous volumetric distribution of both omnipolar and dipolar space points, where dipolar points represent those locations where the aforementioned geometric volumetrication flaw acts to ‘loop’ infinitessimal segments of a ‘leftover’ energy-line wherever the ‘circle’ (or ‘sphere’) can only be ‘closed’ at the expense of ‘spitting out’ the unsettled-relativity remainder known as “PI”. Wherever/whenever they occur, these transient loops of energy temporarily change the absolute omnipolar ineffective status of point locations (to that of  relative dipolar effective point having a preferred discrete-axis of orientation associated with its ‘leftover’ infinitessimal impetus). An infinitessimal ‘PI’ quantum of energy is thus the smallest bit in our physically-effective relative frame dynamics. Therefore, minimal-dipole quantum loops are the actual ‘ultimately indivisible ATOMS’ of physical reality, where these excited directional energy ‘atoms’ begin life as effective-constituents of a universal ‘quantum’ ocean constantly generated by/within absolute frame dynamics. The so-called QUANTUM VACUUM is thus a ‘FALSE VOID’ vacuum volumetric foreground of ‘true atom’ energy quanta fluxing within the TRUE VOID vacuum volumetric background of ‘space’.

<16>  Closing Comments
That’s as far as our train of thought needs to go in order to arrive at brief answers for “The First Three Questions”. Forthcoming papers will consistently tackle in turn all those other questions which these answers will doubtless engender in mathematical and physical cosmologists. We would naturally welcome suggestions from professionals in this field as to the most important question(s) they would like us to tackle next. In any case our next paper is sure to ‘absolutely’ remove yet another ‘brick’ from that ‘relative fact’ brick wall our professional colleagues keep running into. Till then, goodbye and good thinking!

END  Explanatory Paper #  00005                                    END  Explanatory Paper #  00005                                         END  Explanatory Paper #00005

Copyright (C) 2003-2004 by Samuel Fodera. All rights reserved.  No commercial or other use of the contents of the above papers is permitted, except as follows: Permission is hereby granted for the use/quotation of the foregoing explanatory text, either in whole or in part, only for the purposes of news items and/or critical reviews and/or learned articles/discussions and/or reports and/or publicity blurbs, and only where such use only involves noting/advising/discussing the newsworthiness and/or other merits or otherwise of and/or any comments and/or recommendations flowing from any such authorised use/appearances regarding “THEORY & WORKS The Nature, Origin, Structure & Mechanics of Everything” and/or its author, Mr. Samuel Fodera, and/or the ‘Realised Direction’ Theory of Everything effectively described by Mr. Samuel Fodera therein.  Otherwise the foregoing text may not be copied, stored, retrieved or transmitted in any way without written permission of the author.



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           THEORY & WORKS: The Nature, Origin, Structure & Mechanics Of Everything *..................by Samuel Fodera.

  Australian Dollars---$20:00 or US Dollars---$15:00 per copy; also covers postage and handling.

* About this book:This affordable A5 Paperback book of 156 pages presents a complete and comprehensive 'grand unifying' theory of THE Universe and all its Cosmological processes, including Gravity.  It contains exciting new concepts and consistent explanations that provide the basis for a wholly classical cosmological model covering all the observed phenomena.  The model contained in this book is a "from the bottom up" non-mathematical one, derived from first principles so as to  predict observed phenomena naturally, consistently and without the discontinuities and limitations in scope and logic which, to date, have afflicted all other "grand" models.  This book brings to a wider audience the full text of our club president’s exciting lectures on Everything.  The FIRST HALF of this book is basically the text of the INAUGURAL Earthling Club Science Lecture entitled: THE THEORY (The Nature and Origin of Everything).  The SECOND HALF of this book is the text of the "follow-up" Lecture entitled: THE WORKS (The Structure and Mechanics of Everything).  The exciting alternative of a "classical cosmos" is part and parcel of this fascinating amateur treatment explaining all those “difficult” and “stubborn” bits of Cosmology and Elementary/Astro Physics which have yet to yield to the professional scientific treatment; like: The nature and origin of "Charge"; the true nature of "Energy/Matter"; the various aspects of "Gravity" (and its Grand Unification with other “forces”); the true nature of the “Singularity”; the true nature of “Spacetime”; the question of whether or not there really is an "Absolute Frame of Reference"; what goes on inside "Black Holes"; what gives rise to "Mass/Inertia"; where does our "Observable Universe Volume" fit into the totality of the greater physical scheme of things; and so on... The author provides some tantalising sketches and consistent descriptions of observed reality in support of his compelling arguments, verbal illustrations and mechanistic explanations---including, among other things, a totally new "Table of Elementary Particles/Forces" and some truly novel insights into the nature and probable evolutionary histories of the great variety of phenomena and structures in our observable universe---all neatly rounded off with remarkably consistent extrapolations as to what lies beyond our telescopic horizons.

*** Upcoming Attractions **

~  Explanatory Papers # 00006 to 00015+---each one explaining a (currently) enigmatic physical/cosmological phenomenon and/or
      conundrum in a completely consistent manner in accordance with 'Realised Direction' Theory (see above book description).

~  Other activities/contents are in the melting pot...so please visit again when you're next in the mood for some truly unique and original scientific/technological solutions and happennings at...



Copyright (C) 2001-2004 Samuel Fodera.  All rights reserved.